FORMATION OF DEBT DISCOUNT RATE: ACCOUNTING ASPECT
The transformation of the accounting system is under the influence of those changes that characterize the development of new methods and approaches in the field of enterprise business management. Discounting is one such process, characterized by a number of features, including the determination of the rate and the choice of method of its application. The study of discount rate formation in the scientific literature is one of the most relevant.
One of the reasons is the urgency of the issue due to changes in the regulatory documents regarding the accounting of long-term receivables at present value. Based on the analysis of the essence of the category of the term "discount rate" in the legislative documents, as well as among the approaches of foreign and Ukrainian scientists, it is determined that the discount rate is of interest and considers the risk associated with a particular cash flow. In addition, the most common methods for determining the discount rate are discussed. This allowed us to construct a mechanism for determining the discount rate for long-term receivables in the form of an appropriate algorithm, which is based on the "traditional" factors of the discount rate (inflation, profitability of money and risk factor for a specific enterprise), thus considering both the country’s financial market indicators as well as peculiarities of the entity's activities.
The developed mechanism became the basis for determining the directions of changes occurring in the structure of financial reporting indicators in the accounting system. Such changes are reflected in the structure of incomes and expenses of the enterprise, because the accounting system recognizes the financial income or expense from the discounting of receivables in the form of amortization of the discount on the date of occurrence and throughout the maturity of each subsequent reporting date.
The results of the study contribute to the development of both theoretical knowledge on determining the discount rate of long-term receivables, as well as practical aspects of forming a methodological approach to accounting for the components of the financial result of the enterprise.
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