migration, brain circulation, migration policy


Many highly developed countries suffer the economic consequences of a growthlimiting demographic gap, which they only can fill with immigration. However, immigrants must be capable to be integrated into the receiving economy based on age and education. However, emigration raises in the home-countries the complex problem of “Brain Drain” (including loss of human capital, reduction in unemployment), which is offset by a “Brain Gain” in the destination country due to immigration. It can be shown, however, that within the framework of an adapted migration policy there can be a "Brain Circulation" that has advantages for all countries involved


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Author Biography

Franz Peter Lang, Institut Supérieur de l'Économie (ISEC)



Destatis,, 26.2.2021
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How to Cite

Lang, F. P. (2021). INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION AND BRAIN CIRCULATION. European Cooperation, 1(49), 74–80.